In quantum supremacy, the aim is to demonstrate that a given system can solve a task in an unlimited amount of time that no other quantum computer can achieve in any possible quantity of time. For this reason, the system must be able to do so in such a way that if we do observe the results, we will conclude that the outcomes are indeed real. To this end, experiments in quantum supremacy are usually done in a controlled lab setting in a scientific laboratory. However, many experimental results have been garnered from more ordinary lab environments such as the home.
The first experiment in Quantum supremacy was done back in 1977 by Richard Feynman. His set of experiments led him to conclude that a given set of initial conditions can produce the results a single machine would otherwise achieve. Aaronson and coworkers then extended Feynman’s work, testing different combinations of initial conditions using quantum devices. These experiments showed that a random number generator could indeed generate the results of a random quantum circuit would otherwise produce. The proof that these generators work came from how theists would later prove God’s existence through quantum mechanics.
While this evidence provided a great boost in the study of Quantum Physics, the proof of God’s existence did not stop there. It also led to more questions. After all, if the random number generators can produce the results a classical computer would achieve, how could it be possible for a God to exist. Theists argue that these counters to prove that the laws of classical physics are inconsistent with the existence of a God. And thus, Quantum supremacy became a point of contention between religionists and science.
Two decades later, a group of scientists named Arpad Nagy developed what is known as the Quantum supremacy argument. With this new argument, they claimed that the Quantum Laws was inconsistent with the predictions of the Standard Model of particles and forces because they contradict the intuition of chance. They further claimed that this was caused by an error correction that is inherent to the use of quantum computers.
Physicists responded by proclaiming that these Quantum Computers cannot create reality. Thus, Quantum supremacy was declared a non-issue. However, nearly two decades later, experiments still continued to claim that Quantum Computers can, in fact, produce results inconsistent with the Standard Model. In addition, more experimental results continued to surface that contradict the belief that Quantum Computers is capable of producing the outcomes a classical system would produce. Even though these contradictory results have been subjected to rigorous testing, no one has been able to disprove the Quantum supremacy model.
In a new experiment, scientists have now tested the properties of a random quantum circuit, rather than the purported Quantum supremacy. Although the experiment has not yet been fully completed, it is currently underway. The test was conducted on a device known as a quantum interference network. This network utilizes superconducting material to create a virtual circuit which involves two independent and different qubits. When these two qubits collide, their interaction produces a third, previously unseen, quantum state.
The results of the second experimental test showed that there were in fact two independent states produced in the interference network. This means that while Quantum supremacy originally stated that there would be only one state, this second state does not exist when these two systems collide. Therefore, Quantum supremacy became an impossibility, at least according to this test. While this test does not prove Quantum Computers is true, it does open up a new line of possible experimental testing.
Quantum supremacy is still a viable issue among some of the most popularistic computer scientists. Some of these people have taken the approach that while Quantum Computers may not be possible to crack, they certainly can be mimicked. The issue of whether Quantum Computers is impossible is a very dicey topic. Most agree that it is entirely possible for a Quantum Computer to crack certain types of encryption or to find some way to fit an analog computer into a digital one. However, it is unlikely any Quantum Computing methods will ever be able to crack the most widely used encryption programs on computers today such as the SSL/TLS protocol or the TCP/IP protocol.